Introduction to 3D Modeling and Animation
Class 04: TopologyTopics
 Topology
 Deformation
 Basic Sculpting
 Week 04 Character Head Model Lab
This is class fore!
Topology
Topology
Topology refers to the geometric surface characteristics of a 3D object. Good topology support the threedimensional form and ample deformation.
Deformation
Deformation
Deformation in a model refers to its ability to distort its shape. You must model your character to be able to bend, flex, twist, and so on depending on the areas of articulation.
Common Geometrical Errors
NonManifold Geometry
Nonmanifold topology polygons have a configuration that cannot be unfolded into a continuous flat piece. Some tools and actions in Maya cannot work properly with nonmanifold geometry. For example, the Boolean operations and the Reduce feature do not work with nonmanifold polygon topology. The image below shows three examples of nonmanifold topology polygons.
Lamina Faces
Lamina faces share all of their edges. Basically, one face “on top” of the other, usually sharing edges.
One common cause is extruding faces but not translating them after.
NonPlanar Surfaces
A polygon face is planar when all of its vertices lie in a certain plane. For example, a triangle face is always planar, because its three points define a plane.
A polygon face is nonplanar when it has more than three vertices, and one or more of those vertices do not lie in the same plane. When a polygon mesh is comprised of quads or ngons it is possible to have nonplanar polygon faces.
Floating Vertices
Be careful about have random floating vertices.
Deleting edges but not the vertices are a common mistake.
Poles/Stars
Poles are areas where more than four edges meet and result in poor contiguous surfaces.
Dense or Sparse Geometry
Your objects should only have the necessary about of geometry needed to complete the form.
NonContour
If the geometry does not “wrap around the surface it will look incorrect and not deform appropriately.
Non Square
You are looking for square geometry where possible.
Square geometry will model, texture, and deform better than nonsquare geometry.
That being said you also want to limit your total polycount.
Basic Sculpting
The window to the right shows a good example of a mechanical hardsurface model vs an organic softsurface model.
Zbrush Core Mini
Pixologic Zbrush has become an industry standard in digital sculpting. It is however a paid program. It is also very complicated (not as much as Maya but still pretty bad). Pixologic offers a free “lowergrade” version of their program called, Zbrush Core Mini. It does not have all the bells and whistles but does allow for Dynamesh Sculpt.
Dynamesh is process of sculpting on a mesh and the model autogenerates the geometry necessary for the change to the surface to happen. Basically it automatically will subdivide the model as you sculpt. This is very freeform and you do not need to worry about the geometry of the model at all while you work, just the aesthetics of the form.
Retopology
Retopology is the process of creating a model with proper gridflow on top of a reference model with poor geometry. This allows you to create an aesthetically pleasing model without concern of the geometry itself. Then you can simply use it as a guide to create a similar form but with proper topology.
Week 04 Character Head Model Lab
Week 04 Character Head Model Lab:
The character’s body is complete but he lacks a head. In this lab we will put a head on its shoulders.
You will be graded on the following:
 Reference Accuracy

The model closely resembles the reference turnaround images.

 Geometry

Produce a clean mesh with few errors.


Topology

Strong gridflow that supports the form well.


Aesthetic

Excellent design that is appealing to look at.

Resources:
 Assignment Video Tutorials
 You may watch these tutorial videos below to help you complete your assignment.
 Assignment Lab Materials
 You may download the lab materials here: 3Dweek04LabMaterials.
Assignment Video Tutorials
Wait! Before you go!
Did you remember to?
 Read through this webpage
 Watch the videos
 Submit Week 04 Character Head Model Lab on Blackboard